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Composition of Kefir



The composition and flavor of kefir depend on the source of grain, milk source (cow, ewe, goat, and mare), and its fat content (regular fat, low fat, and nonfat). Table lists up the biochemical components of kefir.


1) Milk

Milk is one of the best natural foods containing various minerals, growth ingredients, vitamins, protein, etc. Despite so many reasons of milk being good for human bodies, however, there are lactose intolerant people suffer from diarrhea or stomach ache due to lack of enzymes to degrade lactose in milk.

On the other hand, kefir does not show such a symptom since lactose converts into lactic acid during fermentation. 


2) Lactic Acid

There are two forms (L form and D form) of lactic acid. They are called as optical isomers with the symmetry of mirror image. Despite their same structure, only L-form of lactic acid is useful for human body. It is an indispensable element for the metabolism of cells, the promotion of intestinal activities, and the prevention of malignant tumors.


3) Vitamin and amino acids

Kefir fermentation process yields many vitamins, minerals, amino acids and enzymes. Particularly calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, B2 and B12, vitamin K, vitamin A and vitamin D. Kefir is also an excellent source of biotin, a B vitamin, which aids the body's assimilation of other B Vitamins, such as folic acid, pantothenic acid, vitamin B1(thiamin) and B12. The numerous benefits of maintaining adequate B vitamin intake range from regulation of the kidneys, liver and nervous system to helping relieve skin disorders, boost energy and promote longevity. Tryptophan, one of the essential amino acids abundant in kefir, is well known for its relaxing effect on the nervous system. Because kefir also has an abundance of calcium and magnesium, also important minerals for a healthy nervous system, kefir in the diet can have a particularly calming effect on the nerves.


4) Lactic Acid Bacteria

Human’s small and large intestines perform an important function for the immunization system on top of the function of simply digesting and absorbing foods. If useful bacteria are dominant in the intestines, malfunction of the intestines is prevented and their immunity function is more activated. As a result, infective diseases are prevented and aging process is repressed by improving various types of health statuses. Probiotics used for these purposes is currently commercialized and sold as various health foods. There are many useful lactic acid bacteria producing a lot of lactic acid: Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Streptococcus, Enterococcus, Leuconostoc, Pediococcus, Sporplactobacillus, Bifidobacterium. One of the useful bacteria in the intestines is bifidobacteria whose number gradually decreases as a person ages. Rapid decrease of the number of bifidobacteria occurs due to the use of antibiotics, infections, indigestions, diarrhea, constipation, radiation treatment, and reduced immunity function. To offset the reduction of useful bacteria in the intestines, useful lactic acid bacteria need to be taken.  


5) kefiran

A unique soluble polysaccharide discovered in kefir grains was given the name, kefiran. Kefiran is composed of two mono-saccharides; D-glucose and D-galactose in equal proportions. Kefiran has been shown to exhibit certain medicinal qualities. Experiments performed with mice revealed kefiran exhibited anti-tumour properties. In these experiments, orally administered kefiran was found to reduce the size of tumours by inducing a specific immune response in mice. In addition, recent research evaluated kefir grains induced a systemic anti-inflammatory response in kefir-grain fed rats. More recently, a study on the effects of kefiran in laboratory rats demonstrated that kefiran can significantly suppress increased blood pressure and reduced the serum cholesterol levels in rats. The combination of all the above suggests that kefiran is useful as functional food to prevent or control some common occurring diseases.

Vitamin (Vit B12, B1, K,etc)


Antibiotic Substance

Mineral & Organic acid

Alcohol (0.5-1.5%)

Invertase, Amylase, Proteolytic Enzyme






Different depending on the fat content (whole milk, skim milk, low-fat) of the used milk and its kind (cow, ewe, goat, mare)


3~3.4g of it is contained in 100g


Consumed by lactic acid bacteria and yeasts and 2~3.5g of it is contained in 100g

Lactic acid

The L(+)form of lactic acid is produced mainly by lactic acid bacteria and yeasts and 0.6~1g of it is contained in 100g

Other organic acids

Acetic, formic, propionic, succinic, pyruvic, isobutyric, caproic, capric, caprylic, lauric acids: contribute to kefir's
aroma or are consumed by certain species during fermentation


Produced by yeasts and 0.01~1.8g of it is contained in 100g


Produced by yeasts and heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria

Aromatic compounds

Acetaldehyde, diacetyl, acetoin contribute to kefir's aroma


Increase of vitamin concentration of Æ 20% observed for thiamin (only in ewe milk kefir), pyridoxine (kefir from ewe, goat, mare milk sources), folic acid (kefir from all milk sources except mare milk). Orotic, nicotinic, pantothenic acids: unchanged or reduced concentrations


Kefir, Kefir Grain, Kefir Starter, Kefiran, Lactic Acid Bacteria | DMJ Biotech

DMJ Biotech is developing kefir with a variety of kefir grain, kefir starter and kefiran. Kefir, a fermented milk product, is our main product to taking modern humans well-being into account We are specializing in fermented milk, lactic acid bacteria, fermented milk product, kefir powder, kefir grains and caucasian kefir. DMJ Biotech has gained valuable experience in manufacturing high quality products.